Development of Flourescence-based Immunosensors for Continous Carbohydrate Monotoring : Applications for Maltose and Glucose

Sammanfattning: Weak affinity interaction of monoclonal antibodies and carbohydrate antigens can be detected and quantified by alterations in the antibodies' intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. These weak/transient binding events have been monitored by total internal reflection fluorescence (TlRF) by facilitating the change in intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. This immunosensor followed instant changes in the antigen concentration with rapid association- and dissociation rate constants reaching equilibrium in a short time, without the need for regeneration. Furthermore, in a competition assay with extrinsic fluorescence labeling, it was established that Förster/fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) can be applied for weak and transient interactions. By entrapping components in small semipermeable capsules, aconvenient flow system was fabricated allowing on-line measurements of maltose. Quantification of maltose concentration was achievable in the mM-range without need for regeneration.High specificty for maltose was exhibited in crude food-samples with quantification in accordance with batch analysis. Furthermore, a monoclonal antibody was developed for potential use as a glucose immunosensor for diabetes. Its ability to interact with glucose was determined by competitive weak affinity chromatography (WAC) to approximately 19 mM in dissociation constant. This antibody was developed to bind monosaccharides, especially glucose, by utilizing crossreation with a carbohydrate dextran polymer. Selectivity for glucose was greater than for the similar monosaccharides, mannose and galactose. This antibody, or a fragment, in a fluorescence platform is an alternative to monitor glucose in vivo where other glucose-binders might fail.