Membrane Stress and the Role of GYF Domain Proteins
Sammanfattning: Intracellular membrane trafficking is regulated by a large number of protein complexes and lipids. Blocking of trafficking disrupts normal membrane dynamics and causes membrane stress. Two similar proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Myr1 and Smy2, each containing a polyproline-binding GYF domain, were discovered in separate screens for dosage suppressors of trafficking mutations. The functions of GYF domain proteins are poorly described despite its determined structure and a number of known polyproline peptide ligands. We predicted, using computational analysis, associations between mRNA decay factors and both Myr1 and Smy2, and further demonstrated that they localize to sites of mRNA degradation upon stress, in a GYF domain dependent manner.Ypt6 is a small GTPase that regulates vesicle docking at the late Golgi in budding yeast. Myr1 was found as a novel suppressor during the screening of a genomic library in a null ypt6 mutant. Myr1 additionally was capable of rescuing the temperature sensitive growth of a Ric1 deficient strain. Importantly, Ric1 is an activator of Ypt6 and is synthetic lethal with Myr1. Biochemical characterization of the Myr1 protein revealed a limited solubility and an ability to bind cellular membranes, likely relevant to the rescue of trafficking mutants.We further assayed the affinity of Myr1 domains to liposomes of distinct composition. Preference for negatively charged lipids suggested possible electrostatic interactions with polybasic clusters within C-terminal regions of Myr1. In contrast, the N-terminus with the GYF domain was found to be capable of self-association. Membrane stress caused by a lipid-bilayer perturbing drug resulted in induced formation of mRNA processing bodies. Cumulatively, these studies suggest that Myr1 functions in the regulation of mRNA stability via its GYF domain, and can sense membrane stress by binding to the lipid bilayer.
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