Die Lebensperioden von Kosmos, Polis und Individuum in der Philosophie Platons : Zur platonischen Seelenlehre in ihren ontologischen Voraussetzungen
Sammanfattning: This dissertation offers a systematic treatment of all the changes to which the soul is subject according to Plato’s philosophy. Its starting-point is the rational soul’s structural bipolarity, which can be reduced, via the binary opposites of the highest kinds (megista gene), to the ultimate principles of the One and the Indefinite Dyad. The result is that the soul, living without the body, participates to an ever higher degree in the positive series of the highest kinds (identity, rest), whereas during the lifetime, it is increasingly determined by the kinds subordinate to the second principle (difference, motion). Although Plato’s conceptual series correspond to the opposition between the principles, the highest degree of unity can only be reached through the coactivity of the negative series due to the soul’s ontological deficiency. Consequently, there is need for an equalization of the opposites (mesotes). Both conceptual series correspond to properties assigned to the parts of the soul, which, according to the rule of mesotes, only deserve to be called virtues (noetic and dianoetic thinking, self-control and bravery, self-control and freedom) in relation to each other. Since the period of life is determined by difference, only the knowledge of the positive kinds, gained by recollection (anamnesis), can provide the right mixture of the forthes of the soul. This anamnesis is achieved gradually through an education of the soul that is adapted to its three parts and occurs during the first half of the lifespan. During the second half, the anamnesis can no longer compensate for the rising influence of Plurality. The individual dies, and the soul again subjects itself to the rule of the positive kinds.After a detailed presentation of the Platonic theory of the soul as applied to the universe (kosmos), the state (polis) and the individual, the authoress shows how Plato’s literary art illustrates his theory.
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