Earthquake Sources, the Stress Field and Seismic Hazard A Study in Eritrea and its Surrounding
Sammanfattning: Presented in this thesis are some basic concepts and applications of seismic hazard analysis and the elements that influence the amplitude and geometric attenuation of earthquake ground motion. This thesis centers on the identification of the styles of failure, focal mechanisms, and the state of regional stress in the study area. Seismic hazard is a complex problem often involving considerable uncertainties. Therefore it is reasonable to consider different seismic hazard analysis approaches in order to as robustly as possible define zones of different levels of hazard. With the aim of characterizing and quantifying hazard in the east African region of Eritrea and its surroundings, a study is included in the thesis presenting hazard maps constructed using two non-parametric probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) approaches. Peak ground acceleration (PGA) values for 10% probability of exceedence in 50 years are computed at given grid points for the whole selected area and results from both methods are compared.Other aspects addressed in the thesis include the determination of source parameters of selected earthquakes that occur in the Afar region. The styles of faulting, the mechanisms involved during the rupture process and the states of stress along the major tectonic features are also highlighted. Source parameters for selected events in the region were re-evaluated and improved solutions obtained. An aftershock sequence in the Hengill volcanic area in SW Iceland, following the major event that occurred on June 4, 1998, was used to investigate improved methodologies for moment tensor using a relative approach. The sensitive and spatially dense seismic network in this area reveals large sets of clustered events allowing the power of the new methodology to be demonstrated and providing greater insight into the tectonic implications of the activity in the area.
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