Development of diode laser-based absorption and dispersion spectroscopic techniques for sensitive and selective detection of gaseous species and temperature
Sammanfattning: The main aim of this thesis has been to contribute to the ongoing work with development of new diode-laser-based spectroscopic techniques and methodologies for sensitive detection of molecules in gas phase. The techniques under scrutiny are tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry (TDLAS) and Faraday modulation spectrometry (FAMOS). Conventional distributed-feedback (DFB) telecommunication diode lasers working in the near-infrared (NIR) region have been used for detection of carbon monoxide (CO) and temperature in hot humid media whereas a unique frequency-quadrupled external-cavity diode laser producing mW powers of continuous-wave (cw) light in the ultra violet (UV) region have been used for detection of nitric oxide (NO).A methodology for assessment of CO in hot humid media by DFB-TDLAS has been developed. By addressing a particular transition in its 2nd overtone band, and by use of a dual-fitting methodology with a single reference water spectrum for background correction, % concentrations of CO can be detected in media with tens of percent of H2O (?40%) at T?1000 °C with an accuracy of a few %. Moreover, using an ordinary DFB laser working in the C-band, a technique for assessment of the temperature in hot humid gases (T?1000 °C) to within a fraction of a percent has been developed. The technique addresses two groups of lines in H2O that have a favorable temperature dependence and are easily accessed in a single scan, which makes it sturdy and useful for industrial applications.A technique for detection of NO on its strong electronic transitions by direct absorption spectrometry (DAS) using cw UV diode laser light has been developed. Since the electronic transitions are ca. two or several orders of magnitude stronger than of those at various rotational-vibrational bands, the system is capable of detecting NO down to low ppb?m concentrations solely using DAS.Also the FAMOS technique has been further developed. A new theoretical description expressed in terms of both the integrated line strength of the transition and 1st Fourier coefficients of a magnetic-field-modulated dispersive lineshape functions is presented. The description has been applied to both ro-vib Q-transitions and electronic transitions in NO. Simulations under different pressures and magnetic field conditions have been made that provide the optimum conditions for both cases. A first demonstration and characterization of FAMOS of NO addressing its electronic transitions in the UV-region has been made, resulting in a detection limit of 10 ppb?m. The characterization indicates that the technique can be significantly improved if optimum conditions can be obtained, which demonstrates the high potential of the UV-FAMOS technique.
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