Förskollärarkårens professionaliseringssträvanden 1960 – 2005 ur ett fackligt perspektiv
Sammanfattning: The overall point of the study is to describe and understand the endeavours of the pre-school teachers’ trade union to establish professionalism within this field of work, from the end of the 1960s to 2005. In order to shed light on the subject the main questions asked and answered in this study were: How does the pre-school teachers’ trade union act on issues regarding the autonomy of the pre-school teaching profession? To what extent, and in what way, does the pre-school teachers’ trade union strengthen the pre-school teaching profession’s position by differentiating itself from, and/or allying itself with other professional groups? Which knowledge base is the pre-school teachers’ trade union trying to establish and how does the union act on issues concerning the pre-school teaching profession’s knowledge base? How can these endeavours be understood from a gender perspective? The study presents profession and gender theoretical perspectives. It is based on an analysis of trade-union and official documents concerning pre-school, such as government enquiries, general guidelines and formal instructions. The analysis shows that state regulation of pre-school and its teachers has increased over the 45-year period in question. The result of this has been clearer directives but, at the same time, a loss of professional autonomy. The pre-school teachers’ trade unions’ endeavours to establish a professional monopoly through attempting to differentiate the profession by excluding people without a university degree, has been unsuccessful despite exclusion strategies aimed at nursery nurses. A clear effort can be seen to build an alliance with the teachers in compulsory schools. Aside from extending the pre-school teachers’ university training to 3.5 years, it is also evident that the move from care and developmental psychology to pedagogy and learning has been effected through the alliance with the compulsory school teachers. From a gender perspective, the context of pre-school teaching can be seen to have changed symbolically from one primarily intended to provide care and monitor children to a more pedagogical institution. Pre-school teachers have become teachers and children’s learning is emphasised more than their development. Overall this means that the pre-school teachers have a new identity and that pre-school teaching is no longer so clearly a woman’s job.
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