Prognostic signficance of tumor cell markers in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with special emphasis on lymphoma localization

Sammanfattning: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of high-grade B-cell lymphoma with different clinical, morphological, immunophenotypical, and molecular features. DLBCL is curable in 60-70% of patients when treated with standard immunochemotherapy R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone).The main aim of this thesis is to identify prognostic factors in DLBCL by studying tumor markers (paper I and II), site of disease (paper III) and tumor microenvironment markers in primary DLBCL of the CNS (PCNSL) (paper IV) in order to better identify different risk groups of DLBCL patients.In papers I-III, we studied DLBCL patients treated homogeneously with R-CHOP. The negative prognostic impact of double protein expression of MYC and BCL2 so called “double-expressor lymphoma” (DEL) was a common finding in the three papers. In paper I, we detected DEL in 27% of patients, distributed with no significant difference between the germinal center derived B-cell subgroup (GCB) in 52% of cases and the non-GCB subgroup in 37% of cases. There was no significant difference in survival between GCB and non-GCB patients. The diagnosis in most of the patients with DEL was made on core needle biopsy in this paper. This finding was more thoroughly investigated in paper III with attention paid to the site of biopsy. In paper II, we evaluated the concordance of cell of origin (COO) assignment between gene expression profile (GEP) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to identify the best predictor of survival in a DLBCL cohort including patients from Sweden and Denmark. The overall concordance between the two methods was 83%. We found that ABC/non-GCB subtype identified by both GEP and IHC is associated with the worst outcome. This finding indicates the importance of precise risk stratification in the era of precision medicine. DEL was more common in ABC patients categorized by GEP. In paper III, we identified abdominal lymph node involvement by radiological examination in 63% of DLBCL patients with an inferior survival, adverse clinical characteristics and significantly more frequent DEL. These findings may indicate a distinct biological behavior in patients with abdominal nodal disease. In paper IV, we demonstrated a significant association between IDO1 and PD-L1 in PCNSL patients. This finding indicates the crucial immunosuppressive role of these two molecules. In addition, in PCNSL low frequencies of MYC and BCL2 translocations and high frequency of BCL6 translocation was observed and DEL was detected in 49% of cases. Contrary to our results in systemic DLBCL in papers I-III, there was no significant prognostic impact of DEL in PCNSL.

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