Calcium-Aluminate as Biomaterial Synthesis, Design and Evaluation
Sammanfattning: In this thesis different aspects of calcium-aluminate (CA) as biomaterial are presented. Calcium aluminate is a chemically bonded ceramic with inherent properties making it suitable for use as biomaterial in some applications. In this thesis the emphasis is put on the basic chemical, physical and mechanical properties that may be achieved using the CA system as well as synthesis of the CA raw material. The basis for using CA in any application is the synthesis of the raw material. Different synthesis routes for producing CA are presented with focus on high temperature routes and the micro-structural and phase development during synthesis. As a base for further understanding of the CA properties a thorough outline of the reaction chemistry for CA is presented also including a description of how the reactions may be controlled and how formulations can be designed. The surface reactions of CA when subjected to simulated body fluid showed that CA is in vitro bioactive. An in vivo study in teeth also indicates that CA produces apatite at the tooth material interface. Dental materials are subjected to a harsh environment in the mouth with high mechanical forces, erosion and thermal changes. Also the demands on precise handling characteristics are high. For these reasons the in vitro evaluation of physical and mechanical properties are important. In this work several mechanical and physical properties of Ca-based formulations for dental applications has been tested using different methods. Some attention is also put on the specific characteristics of CA and the difficulties that arise when new material classes needs to be tested according to consensus standard methods. Finally studies on a CA-based formulation intended for Vertebroplasty is presented. The studies include basic mechanical properties as well as testing the material in an in vitro model utilising synthetic cancellous bone.
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