All-organic aqueous Na-ion energy storage devices

Sammanfattning: Development of all-organic aqueous energy storage devices (ESDs) is a promising pathway towards meeting the needs of technically medium/low-demanding electrical applications. These ESDs should favour low cost, low environmental impact, and safety, and thus complement high voltage and energy/power dense storage such as lithium-ion batteries. Yet, many electrode active materials dissolve in aqueous electrolytes, and most all-organic aqueous ESDs fail to deliver the claimed low cost and low environmental impact, as parts of the ESD often are overlooked. Herein, we explore the possibilities of further developing the aqueous Na-ion battery (ASIB) electrolyte 1 m Na2SO4(aq), with the aim to increase the electrochemical stability window and suppress active material dissolution. Moreover, electrodes with commonly used ASIB cathode/anode active materials are made more sustainable with organic binders, separators, and current collectors. Finally, we set out to assemble all-organic aqueous ESDs of exclusively commercial materials, with the aim to provide a truly sustainable and low-cost concept with adequate electrochemical performance.