Teologi och det moderna universitetet : perspektiv på polariseringen mellan teologi och religionsvetenskap under svenskt 1900-tal

Sammanfattning: The thesis examines developments in Swedish theological scholarship during the 20th century, focusing especially on the polarization that manifested itself between the two subject fields theology and religious studies. The main purpose of the study has been to show how this polarization arose, but it also discusses ways of avoiding this polarization and considers how theology relates to society today. The thesis consists of an introduction, two parts and seven chapters. The introductory chapter provides a background in which the orientation and modus operandi of theology during the 20th century are examined from various points of view. The background description presents three tendencies which give starting points for a detailed understanding of Swedish theological scholarship in the 20th century. These three tendencies are the historical orientation of theology, an emphasis on prolegomena (reflections on the subject’s theoretical assumptions) and the fragmentation of theology. These serve as a backdrop for the subsequent study.PART ONE “The assumptions of theology” gives a broad understanding of the external assumptions of theology and religious studies in 20th century Sweden. It is divided into two chapters, one of which examines the role of theology in the modern university while the other presents criticism of theologians. This part contains a description and discussion of the external assumptions of theology and how the theological institutions, together with the theology presented there, have been treated by critics.PART TWO “Theological approaches” examines some important theological approaches, the main focus being on how theologians have approached questions pertaining to theology’s scholarly credentials and its role in society, a treatment which sheds further light on the various aspects of the issue of the polarization of theology and religious studies. Thus in this study the theologians’ texts will contribute to an understanding of the events of the 20th century. This part is divided into three chapters. The thesis shows that during the 20th century, the question of the scholarly credentials of theology became more important than that of theology’s role in society. The study concludes by gathering together aspects of the orientation of theological scholarship and the picture of theology and religious studies in 20th century Sweden. The polarization of theology and religious studies is discussed from the standpoint of late modern assumptions. The thesis shows that the polarization between theology and religious studies which manifested itself in Swedish theological scholarship during the 20th century arose out of the postulation of simplistic contradictions between the scholarly and the confessional dimensions. Finally, I offer a discussion of the relevance of theology today and what scope it has for connecting with society.