Implementation and Analysis of Air-Sea Exchange Processes in Atmosphere and Ocean Modelling

Detta är en avhandling från Uppsala : Universitetsbiblioteket

Sammanfattning: To understand and to predict the weather and climate, numerical models are important tools and it is crucial that the controlling processes are described correctly. Since 70% of the global surface is covered with water the description how the ocean and atmosphere communicates has a considerable impact. The ocean–atmosphere exchange occurs through transport of momentum (friction) and heat, governed by turbulent eddies. The sea surface is also an important source of turbulence in both directions. The scales of the turbulent eddies cannot be resolved in ocean and climate models. Therefore, the turbulent exchanges have to be related to mean variables, such as wind speed and temperature differences. By using measurements, new methods to describe the air–sea exchange during two specific processes were developed. These processes are the so-called UVCN-regime (Unstable Very Close to Neutral stratification) and swell, i.e. waves which are not produced by the local wind. These processes were included in an ocean model and in a regional atmospheric climate model and the impact was investigated.The UVCN-regime enhances the heat transport significantly during the autumn and winter months in the ocean model. This results in a shallower well-mixed surface layer in the ocean. Wind-following swell reduces the surface friction, which is very important for the atmosphere. Some secondary effects in the climate model are reduced low-level cloud cover and reduced precipitation by more than 10% over sea areas. Locally and for short periods the impact is large. It is important to include the UVCN-regime and the swell impact in models, to make simulations more reliable.