Quantum optics in constrained geometries

Detta är en avhandling från Uppsala : Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis

Sammanfattning: When light exhibits particle properties, and when matter exhibits wave properties quantum mechanics is needed to describe physical phenomena. A two-photon source produces nonmaximally entangled photon pairs when the source is small enough to diffract light. It is shown that diffraction degrades the entanglement. Quantum states produced in this way are used to probe the complementarity between path information and interference in Young's double slit experiment.When two photons have a nonmaximally entangled polarization it is shown that the Pancharatnam phase is dependent on the entanglement in a nontrivial way. This could be used for implementing simple quantum logical circuits. Magnetic traps are capable of holding cold neutral atoms. It is shown that magnetic traps and guides can be generated by thin wires etched on a surface using standard nanofabrication technology. These atom chips can hold and manipulate atoms located a few microns above the surface with very high accuracy. The potentials are very versatile and allows for highly complex designs, one such design implemented here is a beam splitter for neutral atoms. Interferometry with these confined de Broglie is also considered. These atom chips could be used for implementing quantum logical circuits.