# Thermal boundary conditions based on field modeling of fires Heat transfer calculations in CFD and FE models with special regards to fire exposure represented with adiabatic surface temperatures

Sammanfattning: Combining computer fluid dynamic, CFD, models with finite element, FE, models to calculate temperature in fire exposed structures can reduce design temperatures in structures while still obtaining the level of structural fire safety stipulated by society. A better understanding of heat transfer and the concept of adiabatic surface temperatures, AST, the transition of data between models can be simplified and more accurate temperature predictions can be made. The thesis focuses on heat transfer calculations by employing AST in particular, and how this can be used as a means of coupling any CFD and FE-analysis code. The thesis presents a method for performing FE-analysis of the thermal response with input data calculated with the computer code FDS, Fire Dynamics Simulator. Parallel to this, the heat balance equation in FDS is tested and an alternate numerical algorithm is developed and tested. Firstly, a verification model is developed to test the radiative and convective part of the existing heat balanceequation in FDS. An alternate numerical algorithm for calculation of the heat transfer at surfaces is developed as a more homogenous alternative for CFD codes. Secondly is a study on how to extract AST from an arbitrary point with direction in a CFD calculation using an infinitesimal surface. Instead of modeling numerous small surfaces for extracting AST, a post processor is developed to calculate AST independent of any modeled surface. For CFD codes, such as FDS that depend on a rectilinear grid, this enables calculation of AST in any direction, not only directions normal to the Cartesian planes. Finally, a comparison is made between different methods for calculating temperatures in steel with AST from numerical fire dynamics/modeling calculations. In this thesis there is a comparison between simplified Eurocode techniques, simple finite element analysis and advanced finite element analysis. This study shows the benefit of understanding heat transfer in numerical codes and to implement the concept of AST in a proper way. This way, the concept of combining numerical fire dynamics calculation with numerical (or simplified) thermal calculations can be better understood and implemented.

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