Determination of Flow Stress and Coefficient of Friction for Extruded Anisotropic Materials under Cold Forming Conditions

Sammanfattning: The work material in metal working operations always showssome kind of anisotropy. In order to simplify the theoreticalanalysis, especially considering bulk deformation processes,anisotropy is usually neglected and the material is assumed tobe isotropic. On the other hand, the analysis that consideredthe influence of anisotropy seldom incorporates the influenceof friction. For predicting the material flow during plasticdeformation and for predicting the final material properties ofthe product, adequate descriptions of both flow stress curvesand coefficients of friction have to be developed.In the present work a number of experimental methods fordetermining the anisotropy have been utilized and compared:Yield loci, strain ratios (R-values) and establishing flowstress-curves in different directions. The results show thatthe yield loci measurements are weak in predicting anisotropywhen the material strain hardening is different in differentdirections. It is concluded that also the strain ration(R-value) measurements are unreliable for describinganisotropy. The most trustable and useful results were foundfrom multi-direction determinations of the flow stresses.Three typical cases of ring upsetting conditions wereanalyzed by theory (3D-FEM) and experiments:    An anisotropic ring, oriented 900 to the axis ofrotational symmetrical anisotropy. The friction coefficientwas the same in all directions    An isotropic ring. The friction coefficient was differentin different directions    An anisotropic ring oriented 00 to the axis of rotationalsymmetrical anisotropy. The friction coefficient was the samein all directionsThe cases 1) and 2) reveal that the influence of anisotropyon the ring deformation is quite similar to that obtained bychanging the frictional condition. The case 3) exposes that ifthe material flow caused by anisotropy is incorrectly referredto friction, the possible error of the friction coefficient canbe as high as 80% for a pronounced anisotropic material. Amodified two-specimen method (MTSM) has been establishedaccording to an inverse method. Experiments were carried ascylinder upsetting. Here both ordinary cylinders were used aswell as so-called Rastegaev specimen. Also plane straincompression tests were utilized. The results show that MTSM isable to evaluate the validity of a selected mathematical modelwhen both the friction coefficient and the flow stress areunknown for a certain process. MTSM can also be used toestimate the friction coefficient and flow stress provided thatthe selected mathematical model is adequate.Key words:Anisotropy, friction coefficient, flowstress, modified two-specimen method and FE-analysis