Modelling self-reported aberrant driving behaviour
Sammanfattning: The highly complex behaviour involved in driving a vehicle may be viewed as a form of action control in a potentially hazardous traffic system. Behavioural adaptation to the traffic system is imperfect, as is sometimes reflected in mishaps and road traffic accidents. Although most erroneous actions caused by a driver are recovered, a driver error may, under unlucky circumstances, result in an accident. Most erroneous actions by a driver are perfectly natural components in action control. However, errors may also appear as deviations from correct actions because of biases in the cognitive and perceptual systems. The present thesis suggests that investigation of the latter type of error affords a greater understanding of driving behaviour. The feasibility of modelling self-reported everyday aberrant driving behaviour was clearly demonstrated in three studies. Four types of aberration were identified: violations (e.g., exceeding the speed limit), mistakes (e.g., misjudgement of the gapwhen overtaking), inattention errors (e.g., failure to observe traffic signs and signals), and inexperience errors (e.g., preparing to reverse while using a forward gear). Male drivers, especially young males, were more prone than women drivers in violating formal and informal traffic rules. Moreover, young drivers experienced more mistakes than older drivers. In contrast, older drivers suffered from inattention errors. Finally, women made more inexperience errors than men. A model comprising these four types of error was shown to be an approximate fit relative to the age and gender of the driver. In the third study the concept of sensation seeking, the preference for risk-taking experiences, and aberrant driving behaviour were investigated in young drivers. Violations, mistakes, and sensation seeking were found to be valid, direct or indirect, predictors of self-reported apprehensionfor traffic offences and accident involvement. It is postulated that the approach taken in the present thesis, to model aberrant driving behaviour, provides an overview of various aberrant driving behaviours prevalent at different stages in the individual's lifetime, behaviours that may be important precursors of traffic offences and accident involvement.
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