Quantum optics in superconducting circuits : Generating, engineering and detecting microwave photons
Sammanfattning: Quantum optics in superconducting circuits, known as circuit QED, studies the interaction of photons at microwave frequencies with artificial atoms made of Josephson junctions. Although quite young, remarkable progress has been made in this field over the past decade, especially given the interest in building a quantum computer using superconducting circuits. In this thesis based on the appended papers, we look at generation, engineering and detection of microwave photons using superconducting circuits. We do this by taking advantage of the strong coupling, on-chip tunability and huge nonlinearity available in superconducting circuits.
First, we present the strong photon-photon interaction measured experimentally, as shown in the giant cross-Kerr effect. In this work, conditional phase shift of about 20 degrees per photon was measured between two coherent fields at single photon level. Given this strong interaction, we propose and analyze a cascaded setup based on the cross-Kerr effect to detect itinerant microwave photons, a long outstanding problem with only recent experimental realizations. We show that a nondestructive detection of microwave photons is possible with few cascaded transmons. The on-chip tunability of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) is exploited to create a tunable superconducting resonator in the next presented experimental work. Finally, we show that by placing the atom at the end of a transmission line, microwave photons can be generated efficiently and on-demand. We also present a setup that can generate the photons in arbitrary wave packets.
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