Ledarskap i kris, kaos och omställning : En empirisk studie av chefer i företag och förvaltning
Sammanfattning: Over the past years, organizations have now and again found themselves in situations characterized by crisis, chaos, and change. These situations are the result, among other things, of social changes like technological developments, internationalization, fluctuating economies, and shifts in values. These developments affect the structures and tasks of organizations, and raise demands for new work methods and skills, which in turn places utmost demands on managers in their key roles within their organizations. The empirical study consists of 20 interviews with people in management positions in business and administration. The thesis sets out to examine how managers apprehend crisis, chaos, and change as phenomena, and how they handle such situations. Since the research approach is inductive and influenced by grounded theory, the results are progressively elucidated by explanatory theories that aim at increasing understanding for the findings. The study shows that the handling of critical situations calls for explicit rules of the game in the organization, i.e., that the conditions and prerequisites be of such character that they facilitate a manager's scope for action and that there is concordance between responsibility and powers. Managers' actions should be characterized by a strategic approach, communicative ability, and personal maturity. Knowledge of phases of crisis and human reactions also helps to facilitate management. The manager's own driving forces, specialist support in and out- side the organization, and factors that consist of reflective communication with co-workers, managerial group, and networks are also important. Carefully planned and well thought-out management recruitment and development and educational activities are likewise of great importance. Outcomes of a positive nature subsequent to the interviewees' handling of crisis, chaos, and change lead to increased effectiveness, improved cooperation, and learning in the organization.
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