Premixed Acidic Calcium Phosphate Cements
Sammanfattning: Calcium phosphate cements are used in medicine to fill bone defects or give support to screws and plates in fracture fixation. The cements are formed via mixing a powder with water and the mixture harden through a dissolution-precipitation reaction. Today the cement mixing is performed in the operating room and consists of several complicated steps that need to be performed under sterile conditions. This renders the mixing a risk factor, potentially leading to harm for the patient e.g. unsatisfactory healing or infection. To reduce this risk, premixed cements have been developed using glycerol as mixing liquid. The premixed cement sets when it is exposed to body liquids. Therefore, premixed cement can be delivered to the operating room in prefilled syringes ready for use, thus eliminating the mixing step.The aim of this thesis is to describe differences between premixed and water-mixed cements and their advantages and drawbacks. The differences will be discussed based on results obtained from bench testing of specific cement properties as function of cement formulations as well as in vitro and in vivo studies.Several cement formulations were evaluated e.g. the influence of powder to liquid ratio (P/L), powder particle size and addition of water on key properties. The results showed that premixed cements have excellent handling properties and have mechanical properties similar to water-based cements. Both P/L and particle size can be used to control these properties. It was shown that small amounts of water improve certain cement properties while dry raw materials were important for long shelf life. To better understand the setting of premixed cements new methods for evaluating working time and setting of premixed cements were developed. In vivo studies showed that the formulations developed in this thesis are biocompatible, resorbable and show good tissue response in bone.This thesis concludes, that the premixed cements are a promising biomaterial with excellent handling properties and good biological response. The most important challenge for the premixed cements, in order to become commercially successful, is to obtain clinically relevant setting time and shelf life simultaneously. An increasing use of premixed cements in the clinics should shorten operation times and reduce infection rates to the benefit of both patients and medical staff.
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