On the Spray Forming of Metals, the Formation of Porosity and the Heat Evolution during Solidification

Detta är en avhandling från Stockholm : Metallernas gjutning

Sammanfattning: This thesis deals with the heat evolution duringsolidification and its relation to the formation of porosity.It intends to improve the current understanding of theformation of porosity in cast materials with special interestin nodular cast iron and the spray forming process. Twodifferent systems, a Fe-based alloy, Cast iron, and a Ni-basedalloy, Inconel 625, are examined. The effect on the heatevolution of the morphology and the processing parameters inspray forming are treated.An evaluation of the microstructural features, segregationbehavior and physical properties such as latent heat of fusionis performed byusing thermal analysis under cooling ratesranging from 0.1 to 104 K/s. In order to achieve this amodified differential thermal analysis (DTA) equipment, amirror furnace and levitation casting are used. Results arepresented in terms of the fraction of solidified, the coolingrate and the microstructure observed. The measured latent heatof fusion is not constant throughout the solidificationprocess. Variations in morphology and cooling rate affect therelease of the latent heat.A thermodynamic model is used to describe the experimentalobservations and to explain the formation of pores in nodularcast iron by taking into consideration the formation of latticedefects during the liquid/solid transformation. In this casethe formation of porosity is regarded as a consequence ofchanges in the volume fraction ratio graphite/ during thesolidification process.A numerical model of the spray forming process is developedby means of CFD modelling and compared with experimentalmeasurements performed in an industrial facility. Stagnationpressure measurements provided information about the gas flowvelocity and an analysis of the overspray powder providedinformation about the particle thermal history. Evaluation ofthe deposit was also performed. It is observed that the processconditions in spray forming promote non-equilibriumsolidification even though solidification at the deposit occursat a lower rate. In this case the porosity formed near theinterface substrate/deposit depends largely on the substratetemperature. The presence of certain reactive elements, such astitanium, affects the porosity levels in the rest of thedeposit.Keywords:Thermal Analysis, Nodular Cast Iron, Inconel625, CFD, Flow Assesment, Multiphase Flow, Spray Deposition,Microporosity, Superalloys