Surface Characterization using Radiometric and Fourier Optical Methods
Sammanfattning: This thesis treats static and dynamic surface characterization using radiometric and Fourier optical methods. A Fourier optical method has been developed for real time image processing in paper production and printing applications. It has been shown that the method can be used to measure crepe frequency, an important parameter in tissue paper production, as well as to monitor the wire mark pattern at paper web velocities of up to 20 m/s. The wire mark pattern has been used to measure dimensional variations across a paper web. These are important for the mechanical properties of paper. Imaging of the moving surfaces onto a spatial light modulator, necessary for Fourier optical analysis of opaque objects, constitutes a motion blur problem. This problem has been solved by means of optical motion compensation using a rotating mirror. A rotating mirror system has also been developed for the inspection of small particles fixed to a rotating sample disc. The optical motion compensation configurations have made exposure times of more than two orders of magnitude longer than the exposure time without compensation possible.A light scattering model for opaque objects, for example coated paper, has also been developed and verified, with a coefficient of determination between theory and measurement ranging from r2=0.84 to r2=0.98, on various paper samples. The light scattering model has been used in the development of an instrument based on the photometric stereo principle. In this instrument the reflectance (or color) and topography of opaque samples are determined from two or more images of the sample illuminated from different directions. The method has been successfully used for studies of the relation between topography and print results in gravure and flexographic printing. Comparisons of surface height profiles measured with the photometric stereo method and profiles obtained with mechanical and optical scanning stylus instruments have shown coefficients of determination of up to r2=0.97. The main advantages of the method are the high speed, the scalability and the ability to obtain reflectance and surface height maps of a surface simultaneously.
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