Microfabrication of Tungsten, Molybdenum and Tungsten Carbide Rods by Laser-Assisted CVD
Sammanfattning: Thin films of refractory metals and carbides have been studied extensively over many years because of their wide range of application. The two major techniques used are Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) and Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD). These can result in the deposition of two-dimensional blanket or patterned thin films. Laser-assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition (LCVD) can provide a maskless alternative for localised deposition in two and three dimensions. This thesis describes LCVD of micrometer-sized tungsten, molybdenum and tungsten carbide rods. The kinetics, phase composition and microstructure have been studied as a function of in situ measured laser induced deposition temperature.Tungsten and molybdenum rods were deposited by hydrogen reduction of their corresponding hexafluorides, WF6 and MoF6, respectively. Single crystal and polycrystalline tungsten rods were obtained, depending on the H2/WF6 molar ratio and deposition temperature. The molybdenum rods were either single crystals or dendritic in form depending on experimental conditions. The field emission characteristics of the tungsten single crystals were investigated. The results showed LCVD to be a potential fabrication technique for field emitting cathodes.Nanocrystalline tungsten carbide rods were deposited from WF6, C2H4 and H2. TEM analysis showed that the carbide rods exhibited a layered structure in terms of phase composition and grain size as a result of the temperature gradient induced by the laser beam. With decreasing WF6/C2H4 molar ratio, the carbon content in the rods increased and the phase composition changed from W/W2C to WC/WC1-x and finally to WC1-x/C.
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