Biosensor technology applied to hybridization analysis and mutation detection

Sammanfattning: This thesis demonstrates the application of biosensor technology for molecular biology investigations, utilizing a surface plasmon resonance based optical device for mass sensitive detection of biomolecular interactions at a chipsurface. Oligonucleotide model systems were designed for analysis of the action of DNA manipulating enzymes. DNA ligation, DNA cleavage and DNA synthesis could be quantitatively monitored in real-time. A protocol for DNA minisequencing was also established based on prevention of chain elongation by incorporation of chain-terminators. Determinations of affinities for short oligonucleotides hybridizing to an immobilized target were performed with various sequence content, length, temperature and degree of complementarity. The decrease in affinity for hybridizations involving mismatch situations was found to be strongly dependent on the relative position of the mismatch. Interestingly, also end-mismatches were clearly detectable. The stabilization effect achieved upon co-hybridization of two adjacently annealing short oligonucleotide modules (modular primer effect) was also investigated for different module combinations and hybridization situations. The modular concept of hybridizations was subsequently demonstrated to result in enhanced Capture of single stranded PCR products. The sequence based DNA analysis, first introduced with oligonucleotide modelsystems, was extended to the scanning and screening formutations in PCR amplified DNA from clinically relevant samples. Several different formats were investigated, eitherwith the PCR products immobilized on the chip and oligonucleotides injected or vice versa. Again, mismatch discrimination could be observed for wild type and mutant specific oligonucleotides hybridizing to the targets. The experimental set-up for mutation detection was further developed by the introduction of a subtractive mismatch sensitive hybridization outside the instrument and a subsequent determination of the relative amounts of remain ingoligonucleotides with analytical biosensor monitoring of hybridizations between fully complementary oligonucleotides. In conclusion, the applied technology was found to be a suitable tool for a wide range of molecular biology applications, with emphasis on hybridization analysis and mutation detection.