Palladium-Catalysed Couplings in Organic Synthesis Exploring Catalyst-Presenting Strategies and Medicinal Chemistry Applications
Sammanfattning: Palladium-catalysed coupling reactions have been embraced by synthetic chemists as one of the preferred means for smooth formation of new carbon-carbon bonds: a truly ubiquitous methodology of synthesizing complex molecules.This thesis describes the study of a series of palladium(0)-catalysed C2-arylations of a 1-cyclopentenyl ether, equipped with a chiral (S)-N-methyl-pyrrolidine auxiliary. The investigated olefin was demonstrated to undergo Si-face insertion, providing (R)-configuration of the arylated C2-carbon.In addition, the mild and novel palladium(II)-catalysed dominoHeck/Suzuki ?,?-diarylation-reduction of a dimethylaminoethyl-substituted chelating vinyl ether was developed using arylboronic acids as arylating agents in combination with 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ). Further, highly regioselective palladium(II)-catalysed ?-and ?-monoarylation of the chelating vinyl ether was achieved using either a bidentate ligand or by employing ligand-less conditions. These studies demonstrate that the choice of ligands has a profound effect on the reaction outcome, as productive ?,?-diarylation could only be obtained by suppressing the competing ?-hydride elimination using BQ as the stabilising ligand and terminal reoxidant.The pivotal role of BQ in the reaction was studied using computer-aided density functional theory calculations. The calculations highlight the crucial role of BQ as a Pd(II)-ligand. In addition of serving as an oxidant of palladium, the calculations support the view that the coordination of BQ to the Pd(II)-centre in the key ?-alkyl complex leads to a low-energy pathway, aided by a strong ?2 Pd-BQ donation-back-donation interaction.Furthermore, an investigation of the scope and limitations of novel stereoselective and BQ-mediated palladium(II)-catalysed domino Heck/Suzuki ?,?-diarylation reactions, involving metal coordinating cyclic methylamino vinyl ethers and a number of electronically diverse arylboronic acids, conducted.In addition, a set of 4-quinolone-3-carboxylic acids, structurally related to elvitegravir and bearing different substituents on the condensed benzene ring, was designed and synthesized as potential HIV-1 integrase inhibitors.Finally, in an effort to identify a new class of HIV-1 protease inhibitors, four different stereopure ?-hydroxy ?-lactam-containing inhibitors were synthesized, biologically evaluated, and co-crystallized with the enzyme.
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