Atmospheric DMS in the High Arctic
Sammanfattning: During the Arctic summer when the anthropogenic influence is limited, the natural marine source of sulfur in the form of gas-phase dimethyl sulfide viz. DMS(g), is of great importance for cloud formation. The harsh environment of the Arctic makes it difficult to perform in situ measurements of DMS(g) and hence regional model simulations can serve as a complement to increase our understanding of DMS related processes in the Arctic. In this thesis a regional scale meteorological forecast model, extended with DMS(g) calculations, is used to provide a consistent three-dimensional time evolving picture of DMS(g) over the pack-ice region. The analysis focus on meteorological aspects on the horizontal and vertical distribution of DMS(g). Our results show that the amount of DMS(g) over an oceanic source region alone does not determine concentration found over the pack-ice, the prevailing wind also exerts a large influence on the horizontal DMS(g) distribution.The modeled DMS(g) concentrations are advected in plumes in over the pack-ice, which, in combination with the photo-chemical decay, explain the large observed temporal variability of DMS(g) over the pack-ice. The modeled vertical structure show episodes with DMS(g) maxima well above the local boundary layer. Also shown is that DMS(g) maxima can be formed adjacent to frontal zones. In the presence of turbulence DMS(g) can be mixed downwards into the local boundary layer and aid growth to local particles and hence contribute to cloud formation in the boundary layer.
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