Disentangling the Reticulate History of Polyploids in Silene (Caryophyllaceae)
Sammanfattning: DNA sequences from the rps16 intron and the psbE-petL spacer from the chloroplast genome, the ribosomal nuclear ITS region, and introns from the low copy nuclear genes RPA2, RPB2, RPD2a and RPD2b, are in different combinations used to infer phylogenetic relationships in Sileneae (Caryophyllaceae). Used in concert, the biparentally inherited nuclear regions are useful to distinguish between paralogy due to allopolyploidy and single gene duplications, respectively, because the latter are not expected to give rise to repeated phylogenetic patterns in potentially unlinked sequence regions. In addition, the sequences resolve previously poorly known relationships in the tribe Sileneae. Several independent losses and incomplete concerted evolution are inferred between the two RPD2 paralogues in a subgroup of Silene.An allopolyploid origin is suggested for the tetraploid S. aegaea, with the maternal ancestor from the diploid S. pentelica lineage, and the paternal contributor from the diploid S. sedoides lineage.Silene involucrata originated as an allotetraploid with the diploid lineage of Arctic S. uralensis as cytoplasmic donor and the diploid Siberian/Northeast Asian S. ajanensis lineage as pollen donor. A subsequent allopolyploidization with the S. ajanensis lineage as pollen donor and the tetraploid S. involucrata lineage as cytoplasmic donor resulted in the hexaploid lineage of S. sorensenis sensu lato.A monophyletic origin of the North American polyploids is rejected. One lineage consists of tetraploid S. menziesii and its diploid allies. A separate lineage leads to a clade consisting of both diploid and polyploid Arctic, European and Asian taxa in addition to the majority of the North American polyploids. The tetraploid S. californica and the hexaploid S. hookeri are derived from separate allopolyploidization events between these two lineages.
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