User Preferred Trajectories in Commercial Aircraft Operation: Design and Implementation
Sammanfattning: This report describes how an aircraft creates and flies its User Preferred Trajectory from take-off to landing, based on the objectives and constraints the aircraft is subjected to from a technological and operational viewpoint.A basic description of commercial aircraft operation is given, with an emphasis on identifying the different stakeholders (Air Navigation Service Providers, Airline Operation Center, Pilot/Aircraft, Airport and Civil Aviation Authority). A general description of Instrument Flight Rules operations is also given, together with an explanation of the capabilities of modern flight management systems.The objectives and constraints of the trajectory building process from an aircraft and air traffic management viewpoint are described in Chapter 4. Those are instrumental in understanding how the user preferred trajectory is built. The initial and detail route planning process is then described.The initial route planning is performed long before the flight and usually by the airline operating center, while detail flight planning, including take-off, runway and departure procedure is performed later by the crew. This process is re-performed minutes before take-off, and usually iterated during the flight when the details of approach and landing are communicated to the aircraft crew.The implementation of this user preferred trajectory is explained in terms of the options that the pilots have in the aircraft avionics to perform the mission. The implementation explained in this report is based on the avionics suite of a Boeing 737NG aircraft equipped with the most advanced flight management systems.An implementation of a user preferred trajectory, where the aircraft crew is able to best fulfill their objectives is composed of an idle or near idle descent from the cruise altitude. This type of descent, called an advanced continuous descent approach has been implemented by some air navigation service providers, airlines and airports, based on advanced technology that will be further described in this paper. Those procedures are called Green Approaches.In the last part of this report, the benefits of flying Green Approach procedures are analyzed by means of aircraft simulations. The analysis describes in detail the lateral and vertical trajectories of the Green Approaches at Stockholm’s Arlanda Airport and Brisbane Airport (Australia), together with the calculated advantages in term of fuel consumption, noise and gas emissions.
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