Cellular Origin and Development of Glioma
Sammanfattning: Gliomas are the most common primary tumors of the central nervous system believed to arise from glial cells. Invasive growth and inherent propensity for malignant progression make gliomas incurable despite extensive treatment. I have developed a life-like orthotopic glioma model and used this and other in vivo models to study basic mechanisms of glioma development and treatment.Previous studies had indicated that experimental gliomas could arise from glial stem cells and astrocytes. The present thesis describes the making and characterization of a novel mouse model, Ctv-a, where gliomas are induced from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Our study shows that OPCs have the capacity to give rise to gliomas and suggests in light of previous data that the differentiation state of the cell of origin affects tumor malignancy.CDKN2A encodes p16INK4a and p14ARF (p19Arf in mouse) commonly inactivated in malignant glioma. Their roles in experimental glioma have been extensively studied and both proteins have tumor suppressor functions in glial stem cells and astrocytes. Here, we demonstrate that p19Arf only could suppress gliomagenesis in OPCs while p16Ink4a had no tumor suppressive effect.Functional DNA repair is pivotal for maintaining genome integrity, eliminating unsalvageable cells and inhibiting tumorigenesis. We have studied how RAD51, a central protein of homology-directed repair, affected experimental glioma development and have found that expression of RAD51 may protect against genomic instability and tumor development.Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, is a central feature of malignant progression in glioma. Antiangiogenic treatment by inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling is used in the clinic for treatment of some cancers. We have investigated the effect of an alternative antiangiogenic protein, histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG), on glioma development and found that HRG could inhibit the formation of malignant gliomas and completely prevent the formation of glioblastoma.
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