Particle emissions from car brakes The influence of contact conditions on the pad-to-rotor interface
Sammanfattning: Due to their adverse health effects emissions have been regulated for over three decades. Brake wear particulate matter is the most important non-exhaust source, however current knowledge is mainly limited to observational studies. This thesis aims to investigate relations between the brake system contact conditions and the related emissions on a model scale; validate the results on a component level; and understand to what extent they are significant on a full-scale.Paper A investigates the influence of nominal contact pressure on a model scale. Results show that higher pressure corresponds to higher emissionsPaper B investigates the influence of the nominal contact pressure, for different friction materials, on a model scale. A temperature threshold, responsible for a relevant emission increase, is identified.Paper C investigates particle characteristics and wear mechanisms for different nominal contact pressures, on a model scale. Results show an enhanced tribo-layer at higher pressure levels.Paper D investigates the influence of brake system conditions on emissions, on a model scale. Results show that frictional power is the most important parameter. A transition temperature independent of the contact condition is identified.Paper E investigates similarities occurring on a component scale and a model scale in terms of emissions. Results show a promising correlation, and the possibility of using a pin-on-disc tribometer for R&D activities.Paper F investigates analogies occurring on a component scale and a model scale, in terms of friction performance, fictional surface and chemical composition. Results show similar phenomena occurring for the two test stands.Paper G analyses real brake system working conditions in a urban environment defining, by means of an inertia dyno bench, the related emissions. Results reveal emission factors compliant to EURO6 and EURO2 regulations, in terms of number and mass, respectively.
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