Electronic and Geometric Structure of Phthalocyanines on Metals
Sammanfattning: Adsorption of monolayers and multilayers of metal-free and metal phthalocyanines molecules on metal surfaces has been investigated using complementary microscopic and synchrotron-based spectroscopic techniques. It was observed by STM measurements that at monolayer coverage the adsorption direction of the metal-free phthalocyanine molecules with respect to the gold surface vary as a function of temperature, i.e. at room temperature (RT) and low temperature (LT). It was explained by the difference in strength of intermolecular and adsorbate-substrate interactions at room and low temperatures. Nature of the interaction between adsorbed species and the surfaces as a function of coverage has been further characterized by XPS measurements. Binding energy shifts as a function of coverage have been attributed to initial- and final-state effects, the latter being due to different core-hole screening for the different molecular coverage. The alignment of molecular films at both monolayer and multilayer coverages, which has been determined by XAS measurements in several cases, is also dependent upon the relative strength of molecule-molecule versus molecule-substrate interaction. Parallel alignment of the molecular film with respect to the surface is the result of significant interaction between the adsorbate and the substrate, whilst standing geometry of the molecular film is due to more significant intermolecular interactions. DFT simulations have provided further information on the nature of the adsorbate-substrate interaction as well as contribution of different molecular orbitals in XPS and XAS spectra. Moreover, investigation of alkali interaction with the phthalocyanine films revealed a significant modification in their geometric and electronic structures due to charge transfer from the alkali metal to the molecular film. However, no sign of metallization of the molecules has been observed by spectroscopic and microscopic studies.
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