Electric DNA arrays for determination of pathogenic Bacillus cereus
Sammanfattning: Silicon-based electric chip arrays were developed for characterization of Bacilluscereus with respect to the capacity to produce toxins involved in food poisoning and foodborne infections. Bacteria of the B. cereus group contain different sets of four toxins encoded by eight genes. The purpose of this work was to develop a fast method for determination of the presence of these genes in colonies from primary enrichment cultures. The specific DNA detection was based on immobilization of DNA capture probes, which hybridize to specific sites on the target genes. Biotin-labeled detection probes were designed to hybridize with the target DNA adjacent to the capture probes. An extravidin - alkaline phosphatase complex was subsequently bound to the hybridized detection probes. Finally, p-aminophenyl phosphate was added as substrate for the enzyme, and the product p-aminophenol was brought in contact with the interdigitated gold electrode on the silicon chips surface. The p-aminophenol was oxidized at the anode to quinoneimine, which was then reduced back to paminophenol at the cathode. This redox recycling generates a current that was used as the DNA-chip response to the target DNA. Two versions of the assay were used. In the first version the capture probes were immobilized on magnetic beads and allchemical reactions until and including the enzymatic reaction took place in aneppendorf tube while the redox recycling was used to measure the amount of paminophenol produced after transfer from the tube to the silicon chip surface. In the second version a silicon chip array was used with 16 parallel electrode positions, each activated by immobilization of one type of capture probes on the gold electrodes. With this system all chemical reactions took place at the chip surface. The kinetics of cell disruption and DNA fragmentation from B. cereus by ultrasonication was determined. Maximum cell disruption was achieved within 5 min and the chip response increased in proportion to the ultrasonic time. Further ultrasonication up to 10 min resulted in further increasing current although no further cell disruption was observed. If the sonication time was extended above 10 min the signal declined. Based on analysis of the DNA size distribution by early end-point PCR and gel electrophoresis, it is suggested that the first 5 min ultrasonication increased the signal by increasing the release of target DNA molecules. Thereafter the signal was increased by fragmentation of target DNA which increases the diffusion rate and also the accessibility of the hybridization site. Finally, the DNA fragment sizes approached that of the hybridization site (51-bp) which may reduce the signal because of cleavage of the target DNA in the hybridization region. These studies were performed with the bead-based hybridization assay. The assay was highly specific to the target gene (hblC) of both B. cereus and B. thuringiensis with no response from negative controlcells of B. subtilis. The 16 positions of the silicon chip array were activated byimmobilization of all known toxin-coding genes of B. cereus and also included both a positive control and a negative control electrode positions. When these chips were exposed to ultrasonicated B. cereus, the gold electrodes were fouled by some component in DNA cell lysates. To circumvent this, the released large DNA was first extracted and then ultrasonicated again, since the extract mainly contains large molecular weight DNA. This DNA extract was applied to characterize one “diarrheal” and one “emetic” strain of B. cereus with the DNA chip arrays. The results agreed with PCR control analysis which means that these electric DNA chip arrays can be used to characterize bacterial colonies with respect to the genes coding of all known toxins of B. cereus: haemolysin (hblA, hblC, hblD), non-haemolytic enterotoxin (nheA, nheB, nheC), cytotoxin K-2 (cytK-2), and cereulide (ces). The chip assay required about 30 min after application of DNA samples. Due to the generic properties of the chips, this technique should also be applicable for characterization of the pathogenicity potential of many other organisms. Keywords: Bacillus cereus, haemolysin, non-haemolytic enterotoxin, cytotoxin K-2, cereulide, toxin-coding genes, bacterial colony, electric DNA chip, ultrasonication, DNA fragmentation.
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