Nordens Frihet : Samfundet, tidningen, kretsen
Sammanfattning: The thesis deals with "Samfundet Nordens Frihet" ['The Association Scandinavia’s Freedom'], its magazine with the same name, Nordens Frihet, and the circle that constituted the magazine’s editorial committee. Nordens Frihet was founded as a direct consequence of the outbreak of the Finnish Winter War on November 30 1939 and was a very active part of the Swedish Finland Movement. The Soviet attack on Finland was seen as a threat to Sweden and the whole of Scandinavia too, and after the harsh peace settlement in March 1940, Nordens Frihet made propaganda for a Nordic defence union in protection against renewed attacks from the East. When on April 9 1940 Germany attacked and occupied Denmark and Norway, Nordens Frihet took sides wholeheartedly against the Nazi occupying power too. The magazine thereby became a dedicated anti-Nazi voice in Sweden during the Second World War.The magazine’s editorial committee – "the circle" – is at the centre of the thesis. It was a group of ten persons that in practice formed and expressed the association's political line. The aim of the thesis is to investigate Nordens Frihet and its political standpoints during the Second World War. This is done partly by describing the association and its inner circle – the editorial committee – and partly by analysing their views.Part I of the thesis, "Personerna" ['The Persons'], deals with the association, the circle and the anti-Nazi networks that Nordens Frihet was a part of. They included anti-Nazi oriented publicists and editors, the partially similar associations "Förbundet Kämpande Demokrati" ['the Federation Struggling Democracy'] and "Tisdagsklubben" ['the Tuesday Club'], Western-allied diplomats stationed in Stockholm and Nordic contacts. The chapter on the editorial committee shows how it became a closely united circle of lifelong friends. Their mutual relations are studied as well as their political orientation. In addition the concepts 'friendship' and 'circles' are discussed.Part II, "Åsikterna" ['The Views'], investigates and analyses Nordens Frihet’s political stances. Was it possible to combine the strong Nordic commitment with an equally dedicated anti-Nazi standpoint? The question was brought to a head when in the summer of 1941 Finland again went to war against the Soviet Union, but this time side by side with Nazi Germany, which at the same time was occupying and oppressing Denmark and Norway. Scandinavia was thus more divided than ever. In spite of this Nordens Frihet made propaganda for Nordic unity, a Nordic defence union, even a Nordic political union. The thesis also investigates Nordens Frihet’s attitude to the Swedish Communists, democracy, parliamentarism, anti-Semitism, neutrality, and their understanding of being "national".Nordens Frihet was discontinued in December 1945, but the circle kept up their contacts. When the conflicts between East and West gradually increased, the circle harboured serious – but not implemented – plans to restart the magazine. In the climate of the Cold War they thought that Sweden would have to abandon its isolationistic neutrality and instead join a Western alliance.
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