Kommunikativt entreprenörskap : Underhållningsidrott som totalupplevelse före, under och efter formeringen av den svenska upplevelseindustrin 1999-2008
Sammanfattning: In 2003, sixteen Swedish humanists proposed the idea of a communicative democracy. Same year, leading Scandinavian organizational theory scholars proposed that Scandinavian welfare states efforts to revitalize their democracies can be understood as ”a movement toward the development of a more charismatic and communicative model of leadership [where] focus has shifted to the organization of communication processes and the necessity of including several viewpoints in decision processes and public debates” (Byrkjeflot, 2003). The sixteen humanists proposed that the core of this way of making sense of post-industrial ICT societies could be understood trough the concepts of technology, democracy and academy (Kylhammar & Battail, 2003).In agreement with such line of thinking, the point of departure for this study is that a communicative democracy hardly can be generative without a fourth concept, the entrepreneur, which infuses agency to the humanist’s promising but rather structurally oriented conceptualization. The entrepreneurial agency is far from being an unproblematic one, though. As a celebrated form of agency in contemporary societies, to such an extent that the entrepreneur ”stands as a powerful creature capable of summoning the energies of the market society through sheer will power, creating the magic of entrepreneurship” (Rehn & Taalas, 2004), one better think twice about the sort of magic brought in.Invited here, with the purpose of empirically describing and theoretically introducing communicative entrepreneurship, is the rough-and-tumble secular magic of sports as entertainment. Guttmann (1978) declared sports being ”among the most discussed and least understood phenomena of our time”, a catchy but relevant slogan for an industry that at one hand generates an intense communicative presence in contemporary societies – “Sporting metaphors saturate everyday language […] sporting expressions pepper political, economic, educational and social discussions” (Booth, 2004) – but on the other hand is in the outskirts of the nowadays so embraced creative industry, as sports was excluded from the formative efforts undertaken by the Knowledge Foundation (KK-stiftelsen) when the Swedish version of the creative industry, the experience industry, was generated via innovative forms of communicative entrepreneurship.This tension between the proper and the grotesque is intriguing. Therefore – being a life philosophy for thousands of athletes and millions of their followers, an extremely detailed applied science, a globally omnipresent form of popular culture, a practice that since the rise of Olympism discursively is rooted in religion, and a multibillion dollar industry in which many stakeholders invest and extract their shares – the multidimensional practice of sports and entertainment and its communicative capacity is scrutinized via a close reading methodology termed genealogical storytelling (Hjorth, 2004).
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