Design and Synthesis of Inhibitors Targeting the Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Serine Protease and the Aspartic Protease BACE-1
Sammanfattning: This thesis describes the synthesis of molecules designed to inhibit the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 serine protease and the human aspartic protease BACE-1, and it also reports the structure-activity relationships between potential inhibitors and the targeted enzymes. In addition, consideration is given to the class of enzymes known as proteases, as well as the question of why such enzymes can be regarded as suitable targets for developing drugs to combat diseases in general. Some strategies used to design protease inhibitors and the desired properties of such potential drug candidates are also briefly examined.Infection with HCV gives rise to a predominantly chronic disease that causes severe liver damage and ultimately leads to cirrhosis and liver cancer, and hence it represents the main factor underlying most of the liver transplants in the developed world. The HCV NS3 serine protease is essential for replication of the virus, and it has become one of the most widely exploited targets for developing anti-HCV inhibitors. The results presented here concern the design and synthesis of linear and macrocyclic NS3 protease inhibitors containing a novel trisubstituted cyclopentane moiety as an N-acyl-(4R)-hydroxyproline bioisostere. Several highly potent compounds were evaluated, including inhibitors with Ki and replicon EC50 values in the subnanomolar and the low nanomolar range, respectively.Alzheimer’s disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of the brain. It is characterized by loss of memory and cognition, and is associated with accumulation of plaques and tangles that cause serious impairment and functional decline of brain tissues. The plaques consist mainly of amyloid-? fragments that are generated through two cleavages of amyloid precursor protein (APP). The enzyme responsible for the initial cleavage is the aspartic protease BACE-1 (beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme), which was explored in the current studies as a pharmaceutical target. The synthetic work comprised development of two series of BACE-1 inhibitors with different central core isosteres; a statine-based and a hydroxyethylene-based series. Highly potent inhibitors were produced by varying the substituents coupled to the statine-based central core. X-ray crystallography and molecular modeling enabled analysis of the binding properties of these compounds. In the second series a hydroxyethylene central core was decorated with more advanced P1 substituents with the aim of increasing the binding interactions with the S1 site. This resulted in inhibitors with more drug-like properties and activities in the low micromolar range.
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