Spike-Based Bayesian-Hebbian Learning in Cortical and Subcortical Microcircuits
Sammanfattning: Cortical and subcortical microcircuits are continuously modified throughout life. Despite ongoing changes these networks stubbornly maintain their functions, which persist although destabilizing synaptic and nonsynaptic mechanisms should ostensibly propel them towards runaway excitation or quiescence. What dynamical phenomena exist to act together to balance such learning with information processing? What types of activity patternsdo they underpin, and how do these patterns relate to our perceptual experiences? What enables learning and memory operations to occur despite such massive and constant neural reorganization? Progress towards answering many of these questions can be pursued through large-scale neuronal simulations. In this thesis, a Hebbian learning rule for spiking neurons inspired by statistical inference is introduced. The spike-based version of the Bayesian Confidence Propagation Neural Network (BCPNN) learning rule involves changes in both synaptic strengths and intrinsic neuronal currents. The model is motivated by molecular cascades whose functional outcomes are mapped onto biological mechanisms such as Hebbian and homeostatic plasticity, neuromodulation, and intrinsic excitability. Temporally interacting memory traces enable spike-timing dependence, a stable learning regime that remains competitive, postsynaptic activity regulation, spike-based reinforcement learning and intrinsic graded persistent firing levels. The thesis seeks to demonstrate how multiple interacting plasticity mechanisms can coordinate reinforcement, auto- and hetero-associative learning within large-scale, spiking, plastic neuronal networks. Spiking neural networks can represent information in the form of probability distributions, and a biophysical realization of Bayesian computation can help reconcile disparate experimental observations.
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