Investments, system dynamics, energy management and policy : a solution to the metric problem of bottom-up supply curves
Sammanfattning: Today, issues such as climate change and increased competition for scarce resources puts pressure on society and firms to transform. Change is not easily managed though, especially not when relating to production or consumption of energy carriers such as district heating or electric power. These systems do not only have strong dynamics internally, but dynamics between multiple technological systems must sometimes be considered to effectively manage response and strategies in relation to change.During the early 1980s, an optimisation model founded on an expert-based approach was developed based on the partial equilibrium model to enable the evaluation of different actions to reach a target. This model — often referred to as marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) or conservation supply curve (CSC) — is used by academia, industry and policymakers globally. The model is applied for causes such as energy conservation and waste management, but also within the climate change context for optimising CO2 reductions and governmental policy. In this context, the model is used by actors such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), International Energy Agency (IEA) and World Bank, and by the consultancy firm McKinsey & Company, who use it extensively in different analysis.This model has many drawbacks in relation to managing interdependencies between different options, but more specifically the metric used for ranking options with a negative marginal cost has a design flaw leading to biased results. As a solution Pareto optimisation has been suggested, but is problematic given the dynamics within and between energy systems.The purpose of this compilation dissertation is to improve the ability for industry and policymakers to effectively manage change and reach set targets. In particular it develops our knowledge of how to account for option interdependency within and between technological systems. Furthermore, the ranking problem relating to expert-based least cost integrated planning is addressed.This dissertation also provides policy and managerial implications relating to the issues of energy conservation, CO2 abatement, and SOx and NOx reduction in relation to the district heating system in Stockholm. Implications are also provided for the interaction with other systems such as the Nordic electric power system.
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