CD40L Gene Therapy for Solid Tumors
Sammanfattning: Adenoviral CD40L gene therapy (AdCD40L) is a strong inducer of anti-tumor immune responses via its activation of dendritic cells (DCs). Activated DCs can in turn activate T cells, which are key players in an efficient anti-tumor response.This thesis includes three papers that focus on different aspects of AdCD40L gene therapy. In the first paper, the infiltration of suppressive CD11b+Gr-1+ cells in orthotopic MB49 bladder tumors was investigated and found to be significantly reduced while activated T cells were increased when the tumors had been treated with local AdCD40L gene therapy. Further, AdCD40L could tilt the cells in the tumor microenvironment in favor of an efficient anti-tumor immunity (M1 macrophages and activated T cells) instead of an immunosuppressive environment (CD11b+Gr-1int/low myeloid cells and M2 macrophages).Immunotherapy combined with chemotherapy has shown promising results, and the second paper investigates the combination of AdCD40L gene therapy together with the chemotherapeutic drug 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). A synergistic effect of the combination treatment on orthotopic MB49 bladder tumors could be demonstrated. The combination therapy resulted in decreased tumor growth, increased survival and systemic MB49-specific immunity, whereas AdCD40L or 5-FU therapy alone had a poor effect on tumor growth.Efficient AdCD40L therapy is dependent on high transduction efficiency in both cancer cells and cells present in the tumor microenvironment. In an attempt to enhance the transduction efficiency, and thereby the therapeutic efficacy, a modified adenovirus was developed for paper three. This modified Ad5PTDf35(mCD40L) could, in comparison with the unmodified Ad5(mCD40L), demonstrate increased transduction capacity of a variety of murine cells. Further, the ability of antigen presenting cells (APCs) to present antigens to T cells was improved after transduction with Ad5PTDf35(mCD40L).
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