On focusing of shock waves
Sammanfattning: Both experimental and numerical investigations of converging shock waves have been performed. In the experiments, a shock tube was used to create and study converging shock waves of various geometrical shapes. Two methods were used to create polygonally shaped shocks. In the first method, the geometry of the outer boundary of the test section of the shock tube was varied. Four different exchangeable shapes of the outer boundary were considered: a circle, a smooth pentagon, a heptagon, and an octagon. In the second method, an initially cylindrical shock wave was perturbed by metal cylinders placed in various patterns and positions inside the test section. For three or more regularly spaced cylinders, the resulting diffracted shock fronts formed polygonal shaped patterns near the point of focus. Regular reflection was observed for the case with three cylinders and Mach refection was observed for cases with four or more cylinders. When the shock wave is close to the center of convergence, light emission is observed. An experimental investigation of the light emission was conducted and results show that the shape of the shock wave close to the center of convergence has a large influence on the amount of emitted light. It was found that a symmetrical polygonal shock front produced more light than an asymmetrical shape.The shock wave focusing was also studied numerically using the Euler equations for a gas obeying the ideal gas law with constant specific heats. Two problems were analyzed; an axisymmetric model of the shock tube used in the experiments and a cylindrical shock wave diffracted by cylinders in a two dimensional test section. The results showed good agreement with the experiments. The temperature field from the numerical simulations was investigated and shows that the triple points behind the shock front are hot spots that increase the temperature at the center as they arrive there.As a practical example of shock wave focusing, converging shocks in an electrohydraulic lithotripter were simulated. The maximum radius of a gas bubble subjected to the pressure field obtained from the lithotripter was calculated and compared for various geometrical shapes and materials of the reflector. Results showed that the shape had a large impact while the material did not influence the maximum radius of the gas bubble.
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