Oxidative stress, antioxidative defence and outcome of gestation in experimental diabetic pregnancy
Sammanfattning: Maternal type 1 diabetes is associated with an increased risk for foetal malformations. The mechanism by which diabetes is teratogenic is not fully known. Previous studies have demonstrated that radical oxygen species can contribute to the teratogenicity of glucose and diabetes. The aim of the present work was to study different aspects of free radical damage and antioxidant defence in experimental diabetic pregnancy. The activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase and the mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes in embryos of normal and diabetic rats of two strains were measured. The catalase activity was higher in embryos of a malformation-resistant strain than in a malformation-prone strain, the difference increased further when the mother was diabetic. Maternal diabetes increased embryonic mRNA levels of catalase and manganese superoxide dismutase in the malformation-resistant strain, but not in the malformation-prone strain. Embryos of the malformation-prone rat thus had lower antioxidative defence than embryos of the malformation-resistant strain. Administration of either vitamin E or vitamin C has previously been shown to protect embryos from maldevelopment in experimental diabetic pregnancy. The vitamins were used together in this thesis to yield protection in both the lipid and aqueous phase. The protective effect was not higher than what had been achieved using the vitamins individually. No synergistic effect was thus found using the two antioxidants together. The urinary excretion of the lipid peroxidation marker 8-iso-PGF2á was increased in pregnant dia-betic rats compared with non-diabetic controls, as was the plasma content of carbonylated proteins. Carbonylated proteins and TBARS concentrations were increased in foetal livers in diabetic pregnancy. However, no increased concentration of 8-iso-PGF2á was found in the amniotic fluid of pregnant diabetic rats. Both lipids and proteins were thus oxidatively modified in experimental diabetic pregnancy. It is concluded that experimental diabetic pregnancy is associated with increased oxidative stress and that the embryonic antioxidant defence is likely to be of importance for normal development in a diabetic environment.
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