On the Generation of cAMP Oscillations and Regulation of the Ca2+ Store-operated Pathway in Pancreatic Islet α- and β-cells

Detta är en avhandling från Uppsala : Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis

Sammanfattning: Insulin and glucagon are released in pulses from pancreatic β- and α-cells, respectively. Both cell types are electrically excitable, and elevation of the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) due to depolarization with voltage-dependent entry of the cation is the main trigger of hormone secretion. Store-operated Ca2+ entry  (SOCE) also contributes to the [Ca2+]i elevation and this process has been suggested to be particularly important for glucagon secretion. cAMP is another important messenger that amplifies Ca2+-triggered secretion of both hormones, but little is known about cAMP dynamics in islet cells. In type-2 diabetes, there is deteriorated β-cell function associated with elevated concentrations of fatty acids, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. To clarify the processes that regulate insulin and glucagon secretion, cAMP signalling and the store-operated pathway were investigated in β- and α-cells, primarily within their natural environment in intact mouse and human islets of Langerhans. Fluorescent biosensors and total internal reflection microscopy were used to investigate signalling specifically at the plasma membrane (PM). Adrenaline increased and decreased the sub-PM cAMP concentration ([cAMP]pm) in immuno-identified α-cells and β-cells, respectively, which facilitated cell identification. Glucagon elicited [cAMP]pm oscillations in α- and β-cells, demonstrating both auto- and paracrine effects of the hormone. Whereas glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) consistently elevated [cAMP]pm in β-cells, only few α-cells responded, indicating that GLP-1 regulates glucagon secretion without changes of α-cell [cAMP]pm. Both α- and β-cells responded to glucose with pronounced oscillations of [cAMP]pm that were partially Ca2+-dependent and synchronized among islet β-cells. The glucose-induced cAMP formation was mediated by plasma membrane-bound adenylyl cyclases. Several phosphodiesterases (PDEs), including the PDE1, -3, -4, and -8 families, were required for shaping the [cAMP]pm signals and pulsatile insulin secretion. Prolonged exposure of islets to the fatty acid palmitate deteriorated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion with loss of pulsatility. This defect was associated with impaired cAMP generation, while [Ca2+]i signalling was essentially unaffected. Stromal interacting molecule 1 (STIM1) is critical for activation of SOCE by sensing the Ca2+ concentration in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ER Ca2+ depletion caused STIM1 aggregation, co-clustering with the PM Ca2+ channel protein Orai1 and SOCE activation. Glucose, which inhibits SOCE by filling the ER with Ca2+, reversed the PM association of STIM1. Consistent with a role of the store-operated pathway in glucagon secretion, this effect was maximal at the low glucose concentrations that inhibit glucagon release, whereas considerably higher concentrations were required in β-cells. Adrenaline induced STIM1 translocation to the PM in α-cells and the reverse process in β-cells, partially reflecting the opposite effects of adrenaline on cAMP in the two cell types. However, cAMP-induced STIM1 aggregates did not co-cluster with Orai1 or activate SOCE, indicating that STIM1 translocation can occur independently of Orai1 clustering and SOCE.