Design and evaluation of stationary polymer electrolyte fuel cell systems
Sammanfattning: The objectives of this doctoral thesis are to give a basisincluding methods for the development of stationary polymerelectrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems for combined heat andpower production. Moreover, the objectives include identifyingprerequisites, requirements and possibilities for PEFC systemsproducing heat and power for buildings in Sweden. The PEFCsystem is still in a pre-commercial state, but low emissionlevels, fast dynamics and high efficiencies are promisingcharacteristics.A thermodynamic model to simulate stationary PEFC systemshas been constructed and pinch technology and exergy analysesare utilised to design and evaluate the system. The finalsystem configuration implies a high total efficiency ofapproximately 98 % (LHV).A flexible test facility was built in connection with theresearch project to experimentally evaluate small-scalestationary PEFC systems at KTH. The research PEFC system hasextensive measurement equipment, a rigorous control system andallows fuel cell systems from approximately 0.2 to 4 kWel insize to be tested. The simulation models of the fuel processorand the fuel cell stack are verified with experimental datataken from the test facility. The initial evaluation andsimulation of the first residential installation of a PEFCsystem in Sweden is also reported. This PEFC system, fuelled bybiogas and hydrogen, is installed in an energy system alsoincluding a photovoltaic array, an electrolyser and hydrogenstorage.Technical aspects of designing a fuel cell system-basedenergy system, including storages and grid connections, whichprovides heat and power to a building are presented in thisthesis. As a basis for the technical and economic evaluations,exemplifying energy systems are constructed and simulated. Fuelcell system installations are predicted to be economicallyunviable for probable near-term conditions in Sweden. The mainfactor in the economic evaluations is the fuel price. However,fuel cell system installations are shown to have a higher fuelutilisation than the conventional method of energy supply.The methods presented in this thesis serve as a collectedbasis for continued research and development in the area.Keywords:Small-scale, stationary, fuel cell system,polymer electrolyte fuel cell, PEFC system, reformer,thermodynamic modelling, pinch technology, exergy analyses,system configuration, test facility, experiments, application,simulation, installation, energy system, energy storage, heatand power demand.
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