Functional Genomics of Bone Metabolism Novel Candidate Genes Identified by Studies in Chicken Models

Detta är en avhandling från Uppsala : Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis

Sammanfattning: Osteoporosis is a disease that leads to decreased bone mineral density (BMD), an altered bone micro-architecture and fragile bones. The disease is highly heritable and numerous genes are thought to be involved, making it difficult to identify the causative genetic elements.Animal models, mainly intercrosses between laboratory strains of mice, have been succesfully used to map genes affecting these traits, but may not mirror the multifactorial genetic etiology of highly complex traits such as osteoporosis.Over the course of tens of thousand years humans have kept domestic animals whose phenotypic repertoires have been tailored to meet our needs. Wild-type red junglefowl (RJ) and domestic White Leghorn (WL) chicken differ for several bone traits. In this thesis Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) mapping was used to trace the inheritance of bone traits in two separate intercrosses between RJ and WL. In these studies we identified several QTL that contributed to differences in BMD, bone size and biomechanical strength of bone. In a comparison of QTL identified in the two intercrosses it was observed that nine QTL had overlapping genomic positions, implicating these loci as important to bone phenotypic variation in chicken.In two separate studies, microarray technology was used to compare global gene expression in bone tissue from RJ and WL. In these studies, differential expression was observed for 779 and 560 genes, respectively. Many differentially expressed genes were co-localized with QTL, which implicates them as QTL-candidates. Results presented in this thesis link several genomic regions and genes to variation in bone traits. Increased knowledge about these identified genes and regions will contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying inter-individual differences in bone metabolism, both in chicken and man.