Development of Palladium-Promoted 11C/12C-Carbonylations and Radiosynthesis of Amyloid PET Ligands
Sammanfattning: In the first part of this thesis, palladium(0)-catalyzed and -mediated carbonylations are discussed. Paper I describes a new method for the safe, efficient use of a solid carbon monoxide source in the synthesis of primary and secondary benzamides. In total, 35 benzamides were synthesized from aryl iodides (20 examples, 69-97% yield) and aryl bromides (15 examples, 32-93% yield). Reduction-prone groups were used successfully in the reactions. In paper II, the same protocol was adopted for the palladium(0)-catalyzed synthesis of N-cyanobenzamides from aryl iodides/bromides, carbon monoxide and cyanamide. In total, 22 N-cyanobenzamides were synthesized (42-88% yield). The radiosynthesis of [11C]N-cyanobenzamides is discussed in paper III. In total, 22 compounds were synthesized from various aryl halides in 28-79% decay corrected radiochemical yield. The protocol was then applied to the radiosynthesis of [11C]N-cyanobenzamide analogs of flufenamic acid and dazoxibene.In the second part of this thesis, compounds of interest in relation to amyloid diseases are discussed. Paper IV describes the solid-phase synthesis of BACE-1 enzyme inhibitors containing secondary and tertiary hydroxyl as the transition state isostere. In total, 22 inhibitors were synthesized. The most potent compound (IC50= 0.19 µM) was co-crystallized at the active site of the enzyme to reveal a new binding mode. In paper V, the evaluation of a potent BACE-1 inhibitor as a potential radiotracer for use in PET is described. The radiolabeled [11C]BSI-IV was obtained in 29±12% decay corrected radiochemical yield by a three-component palladium(0)-mediated aminocarbonylation. Its properties as a potential PET tracer were investigated in vitro by autoradiography and in vivo in rats using small animal PET-CT. A new class of amyloid-binding PET ligands is described in paper VI. Three polythiophenes were labeled with carbon-11 or fluorine-18 (26-43% decay-corrected radiochemical yield). The in vitro studies showed that these ligands bind specifically to amyloid deposits. In vivo PET showed low uptake in the organs of interest in healthy rats and a monkey. These results suggest the labeled thiophenes derivatives could be useful as PET tracers for the study of amyloid diseases.
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