Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Diabetes : Experimental Studies in the Rat

Sammanfattning: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the leading causes of end stage renal failure. An increased susceptibility to renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-injury was found in DM rats. Unilateral renal ischemia for as short as 20 minutes led to an irreversible progressive injury in DM kidneys, whereas the injury in non-DM kidneys was almost reversible. The renal I/R injury was characterized by anuria, infiltration of inflammatory cells, tubular atrophy, dilation of the remaining tubuli and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Necrotic areas were found in the inner parts of the outer medulla and in the papilla. The renal medulla was the most vulnerable part of the kidney. This was seen both by the extent of fibrosis four and eight weeks after I/R and by the presence of TUNEL-positive (apoptotic) cells 6h after ischemia. Increased accumulation of HA and enhanced CD44 expression was seen after I/R in DM kidneys.Treatment with long acting insulin 7-14 days before I/R, decreased the number of apoptotic cells in the renal medulla and protected renal function and morphology after the insult, while insulin treatment after the injury did not have any protective effect. Short acting insulin given 2-6 hours before I/R partially protected renal function but did not improve the morphological picture.Treatment with the angiotensin II receptor type 1 blocker candesartan, the PAF-antagonist UR-12670, the immunosuppressive agents tacrolimus and cyclosporin A, or prednisolone did not improve the outcome of the renal I/R injury in DM. Injection of cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) intraperitoneally in order to induce an over-expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) resulted in a trend towards a better function in DM kidneys after I/R. However, the induction of HO-1 by intraperitoneal CoPP injection was not achieved in all rats, when examined by western blot.In conclusion, unilateral renal I/R leads to a severe progressive injury in DM kidneys. Insulin treatment before ischemia, but not after, reduces the renal injury in DM rats. Studies using a more reliable administration of CoPP are required to decide if induction of HO-1 protects against renal I/R injury in DM.