Microstructure and phase transformation of Ti-6Al-4V

Sammanfattning: The research described in the thesis concerns phase transformations and fatigue properties in the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The need to weld the alloy for certain engine components can expose the alloy locally to non-optimum thermal cycles and it is therefore of importance to gain an understanding of the kinetics involved in the phase transformations during heating and cooling. Moreover, for the purpose of modelling and computer simulations of heat treatments and welding processes, quantitative descriptions of the transformation are necessary. One focus in this work has been to examine the feasibility of using high temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) to study the phase transformation kinetics. In addition, two components of Ti- 6Al-4V produced by ring-rolling and closed die forging, respectively, showed unexpected differences in low cycle fatigue (LCF) under certain loading conditions. Quantitative metallographic studies and texture examinations were conducted in order to find possibly reasons for the observed difference in fatigue properties. The HT-XRD technique was successfully used to monitor the alpha-to-beta transition during heating and the beta-to-alpha transition during cooling and including the transformation kinetics during isothermal hold. From the recorded spectra the thermal expansion properties for the alpha and beta phases could be extracted up to a temperature of 1050°C, enabling the determination of the overall thermal expansion for the alloy by using rule of mixture (ROM) calculations. Quantitative metallographic studies revealed that the closed die forged material exhibited a finer primary alpha grain size and a finer Widmanstätten platelet colony size which would be expected to provide a superior resistance to fatigue crack initiation. Observed differences in the texture of the two materials as determined by electron back-scattered diffraction might also have contributed to the difference in fatigue properties.