Ultra-Wideband Wireless Channels - Estimation, Modeling and Material Characterization
Sammanfattning: This licentiate thesis is focused on the characterization of ultra-wideband wireless channels. The thesis presents results on ultra-wideband communications as well as on the ultra-wideband characterization of materials. The communications related work consisted in the measurement and modeling of outdoor scenarios envisioned for infostation systems. By infostation, we mean a communication system covering a small area, i.e., ranging up to 20 m, where mobile users can pass by or stop while receiving large amounts of data in a short period of time. Considering the expected (but perhaps overly optimistic) 480 Mbps for UWB systems, it should be possible to download a complete DVD in roughly two minutes, which is something not realizable with any of the current wireless technologies. Channel models, commonly based on measurements, can be used to evaluate the performance of such systems. We therefore, we started by performing measurements at one of the scenarios where infostation systems can exist in the future, namely, petrol stations. The idealized model, was one that could correctly describe the continuous evolution of the channel impulse response for a moving user within the system’s range, and therefore it was deemed necessary to track the multipath components defining the impulse responses along a path of several meters. To solve this problem we designed a novel high-resolution scatterer detection method, which is described in Paper I, capable of tracking individual multipath components for a moving user by identifying the originating point scatterers in a two dimensional geometrical space. The same paper also gives insight on some properties of clusters of scatterers, such as their direction-selective radiated power. The scatterer detection method described in Paper I provided us with the required tools to create the channel model described in Paper II. The proposed channel model has a geometrical basis, i.e., each realization of the channel is based on a virtual map containing point scatterers that contribute to the impulse response by multipath components. Some of the particular characteristics of the model include non-stationary effects, such as shadowing and cluster’s visibility regions. At the end of Paper II, in a simple validation step, the output of the channel model showed a good match with the measured impulse responses. The second part of our work, documented in Paper III, consisted on the dielectric characterization of soil samples using microwave measurements. This project was made in cooperation with the Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Analysis at Lund University, which had been developing research work on methane emissions from the wetlands in Zackenberg, Greenland. In recent years, a lot of attention has been put into the understanding of the methane emissions from soils, since methane is a greenhouse gas 20 times stronger than carbon dioxide. However, whereas the methane emissions from natural soils are well documented, the reason behind this effect is an open issue. The usage of microwave measurements to monitor soil samples, aims to address this problem by capturing the sub-surface changes in the soil during gas emissions. An experiment consisting on the monitoring of a soil sample was performed, and a good correlation was found between the variations of the microwave signals and the methane emissions. In addition, the soil dielectric constant was calculated, and from that, the volumetric fractions of the soil constituents which provided useful data for the elaboration of models to describe the gas emission triggering mechanisms. Based on this laboratory experiment, a complete soil monitoring system was created and is at the time of writing running at Zackenberg, Greenland.
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