Phthalocyanines on Surfaces : Monolayers, Films and Alkali Modified Structures

Sammanfattning: The Phthalocyanines (Pc’s) are a group of macro-cyclic molecules, widely investigated due to the possibility to use them in a variety of applications. Electronic and geometrical structure investigations of molecular model systems of Pc’s adsorbed on surfaces are important for a deeper understanding of the functionality of different Pc-based devices. Here, Pc’s monolayers and films, deposited on different surfaces, were investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM). In addition Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations were performed. For molecular films of Metal-free (H2Pc) and Iron (FePc) Pc’s, on surfaces, it is found that the intermolecular interaction is weak and the molecules arrange with their molecular plane mainly perpendicular to the surface. Several monolayer systems were characterized, namely H2Pc and FePc adsorbed on Graphite, ZnPc on InSb(001)-c(8x2), H2Pc on Al(110) and on Au(111). For all the studied monolayers it was found that the molecules are oriented with their molecular plane parallel to the surface. The electronic structure of the molecules is differently influenced by interaction with the surfaces. For H2Pc adsorbed on Graphite the nearly negligible effect of the surface on the molecular electronic structure allowed STM characterization of different molecular orbitals. A strong interaction is instead found in the case of H2Pc on Al(110) resulting in molecules strongly adsorbed, and partly dissociated. Modifications of the electronic and geometrical structure induced by alkali doping of H2Pc films and monolayers were characterized. It is found both for the H2Pc film on Al(110) and monolayer adsorbed on Au(111), that the molecular arrangement is changed upon doping by Potassium and Rubidium, respectively. Potassium doping of the H2Pc films results in a filling of previously empty molecular orbitals by a charge transfer from the alkali to the molecule, with significant modification of the molecular electronic structure.