Ultraviolet Radiation and Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Human Skin
Sammanfattning: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a major risk factor for development of skin cancer. UVR-induced DNA damage and a dysfunctional p53 protein are important steps in the development of squamous cell carcinoman in human skin (SCC). The aim of the present investigation was to analyze incidence trends of SCC in Sweden, quantify the risk of second primary cancer after SCC and further analyze the effects of UVR and p53 protein in human skin in vivo and in vitro. The effect of photoprotection by sunscreens was also evaluated. We found that the age-standardized incidence rate of SCC in Sweden increased substantially in both men and women during the period 1961-1995, especially in men and at chronically sun-exposed skin sites. Patients with SCC are also at increased risk of developing new primary cancers, especially in the skin, squamous cell epithelium, hematopoietic tissues and respiratory organs. In experimental studies in vivo and in vitro in human skin we observed that repair of UV-induced DNA damage appears to be more efficient in chronically sun-exposed skin despite a less uniform p53 response. Non-sun- exposed skin is more homogeneous with respect to the epidermal p53 response. Keratinocytes in skin exposed frequently to the sun may be prone to react more easily to cytotoxic stress. Two different modalities of photoprotection significantly reduced the amount of DNA damage and the number of p53-positive cells. In addition, we demonstrated that a well-defined system for in vitro culture of explanted skin provides an excellent alternative to in vivo experiments. In conclusion, this study has increased our knowledge of SCC epidemiology in Sweden and of the effects of artificial and solar UVR and sunscreens on chronically sun-exposed and non-sun-exposed sites, respectively, of human skin.
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