Propagation of singularities for pseudo-differential operators and generalized Schrödinger propagators

Sammanfattning: In this thesis we discuss different types of regularity for distributions which appear in the theory of pseudo-differential operators and partial differential equations. Partial differential equations often appear in science and technology. For example the Schrödinger equation can be used to describe the change in time of quantum states of physical systems. Pseudo-differential operators can be used to solve partial differential equations.  They are also appropriate to use when modeling different types of problems within physics and engineering. For example, there is a natural connection between pseudo-differential operators and stationary and non-stationary filters in signal processing. Furthermore, the correspondence between symbols and operators when passing from classical mechanics to quantum mechanics essentially agrees with symbols and operators in the Weyl calculus of pseudo-differential operators.In this thesis we concentrate on investigating how regularity properties for solutions of partial differential equations are affected under the mapping of pseudo-differential operators, and in particular of the free time-dependent Schrödinger operators.The solution of the free time-dependent Schrödinger equation can be expressed as a pseudo-differential operator, with non-smooth symbol, acting on the initial condition. We generalize a result about non-tangential convergence, which was obtained by Sjögren and Sjölin (1989) for the free time-dependent Schrödinger equation.Another way to describe regularity for a distribution is to use wave-front sets. They do not only describe where the singularities are, but also the directions in which these singularities appear. The first types of wave-front sets (analytical wave-front sets) were introduced by Sato (1969, 1970). Later on Hörmander introduced ``classical'' wave-front sets (with respect to smoothness) and showed results in the context of pseudo-differential operators with smooth symbols, cf. Hörmander (1985).In this thesis we consider wave-front sets with respect to Fourier Banach function spaces. Roughly speaking, we take B as a Banach space, which is invariant under translations and embedded between the space of Schwartz functions and the space of temperated distributions. Then we say that the wave-front set of a distribution contains all points (x0, ?0) such that no localization of the distribution at x0, belongs to FB in the direction ?0. We prove that pseudo-differential operators with smooth symbols shrink the wave-front set and we obtain opposite embeddings by using sets of characteristic points of the operator symbols.