Värdet av arbete : arbetsvärdering som ett lönepolitiskt instrument
Sammanfattning: The purpose of this dissertation is to examine if and in what way job evaluation can act as an instrument for wage politics. This is done by analysing the process in different job evaluation projects and the connection between job evaluation and the wage politics and wage setting of the organisations. The research questions are: What support and what obstacles can be identified during the job evaluation and wage setting processes to equalise unwarranted wage differences between women and men? How do organisations carry out the results of the job evaluation in wage politics and pay setting? Does job evaluation function as an instrument to achieve a wage setting that gives equal pay for work which is regarded as equal or of equal value and in that case in what way?
The model used in this dissertation, the HAC system, Basic Model for Job Evaluation, has been drawn up with gender neutrality in mind and is based on the factors mentioned in the Equal Opportunities Act, Section 2: knowledge and skills, responsibility, and effort. The empirical studies include two job evaluation projects in municipalities, two projects within government departments and one project in banking. The cases have been studied with the help of the following methods for documenting and analysing the processes of job evaluation and pay setting: intervention, observations, interviews, questionnaires and mapping. Intervention was used in the different support processes through project leadership and reports by experts during the processes of job evaluation and also where appropriate during the individuals qualifications process. Observations were made of the job evaluation process by participation in project and evaluation meetings. Interviews were carried out in Case A and Case E with a number of key people in the project as well as with a selection of people whose positions had been evaluated before the job evaluation and in Case A also after the evaluation was carried out. Questionnaires were given to all the employees in Case E after the first wage setting had taken place. The results of the job evaluation formed a part of each positions basic pay where the individuals qualifications were discussed according to a given model at the individual pay negotiations. Mapping was done of pay policy in all cases, both before and after the job evaluation. The procedure was to interview those responsible for pay as well as to study existing policy documents.
The study makes the following conclusions. The organisational hierarchy with men at the top and managers who are a part of the evaluation group means that the status quo is maintained. Doubtfulness exists regarding the techniques of the job evaluation system. Thus when adjusting to the organisation one should carefully observe how the number of demand levels affects the results, how the weighting of factors affects the results, and how the connection between results and the pay setting is intended to become a reality. Winners as well as losers will appear if changes take place in the ranking of different professions in contrast to former evaluations/values when the job evaluations result is compared to the wage hierarchy.
The role of unions in negotiations may be changed at the introduction of a job evaluation instrument in pay setting which ties a certain part of wages to the results of the job evaluation reducing the scope for negotiations. The efforts to create wage setting that gives equal pay for the same and similar work easily become an evasive problem which is shifted from visible wage setting principles and parts of the wage to invisible ones the more the wage principles and parts of the wage have been clarified. The traditional male dominated hierarchys significance regarding evaluation work and pay setting must be broken. Equal pay is a question of democracy and justice that should be placed at the top of the political agenda.
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