ATP-Binding Cassette Efflux Transporters and Passive Membrane Permeability in Drug Absorption and Disposition
Sammanfattning: Transport into and across the cells of the human body is a prerequisite for the pharmacological action of drugs. Passive membrane permeability and active transport mechanisms are major determinants of the intestinal absorption of drugs, as well as of the distribution to target tissues and the subsequent metabolism and excretion from the body. In this thesis, the role of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and passive permeability on drug absorption and disposition was investigated. Particular emphasis was placed on defining the molecular properties important for these transport mechanisms. The influence of different transport pathways on predictions of intestinal drug absorption was investigated using experimental models of different complexity. Experimental models that include the paracellular pathway gave improved predictions of intestinal drug absorption, especially for incompletely absorbed drugs. Further, the inhibition of the ABC transporters breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) and multidrug-resistance associated protein 2 (MRP2/ABCC2) was experimentally investigated using structurally diverse datasets that were representative of orally administered drugs. A large number of previously unknown inhibitors were identified among registered drugs, but their clinical relevance for drug-drug interactions and drug-induced toxicity remains to be determined. The majority of the inhibitors affected all three major ABC transporters BCRP, MRP2 and P-glycoprotein (P gp/ABCB1), and these multi-specific inhibitors were found to be enriched in highly lipophilic weak bases. To summarize, the present work has led to an increased knowledge of the molecular features of importance for ABC transporter inhibition and passive membrane permeability. Previously unknown ABC transporter inhibitors were identified and predictive computational models were developed for the different drug transport mechanisms. These could be valuable tools to assist in the prioritization of experimental efforts in early drug discovery.
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